There were various writing systems -
Descriptive writing begins as photography. those. letter doodles. It has no focus on sound language. An example of pictographic writing is a drawing in caves discovered by archaeologists. (paleolithic, neolithic)
Valid writing begins with hierography (Hieroglyphics is the Chinese writing system).
The origin of hierography is associated with the need to convey that which does not have visual clarity. The most striking expression of hierography is hieroglyphics.
Hierography is a letter in which graphic signs convey not words in their grammatical and phonetic design, but the meanings behind these words. Therefore, for example, in Chinese hieroglyphic writing, homonyms are transmitted by different hieroglyphs, and they sound and are morphologically constructed in the same way. Some of the old hieroglyphics remain in the Chinese script and write my essay.
In hieroglyphics, the drawing is also not aimed at sound speech.
In dr. In Egypt, the use of the hieroglyph could be threefold:
Used as verbal signs. It meant both concrete objects: animate beings or objects, and abstract concepts and verbs. Not taking into account the pronunciation. The number of these characters is limited (24-30).
As phonograms. A phonogram is a combination of 2 elements that convey sound. Formed from the roots of the words from which they are formed. Three-consonant, two-consonant, and one-consonant phonograms were used. Most often, two-voice phonograms were used. (only consonants!)
As determinants. Determinatives are signs that indicate that a word is an object or an abstract concept.
Abstract concepts were created using means (synecdoches, metonymy, metaphor).
Metaphor: greed, greed was depicted using the hieroglyph of a crocodile.
The size of the hieroglyph also mattered. The larger the hieroglyph, the greater the meaning of the word.
Rebus’s way of writing. One word could replace another word based on sound. Doll + bottle + cotton wool = the doll is to blame and write essay for me.
Pis. language - a sound language fixed in one or another writing system.
Cursive writing - heroics (drawings), demotics (simpler)
F. Champollion was able to come close to deciphering the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, since the inscription contained the transfer of the same text at the top by ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, in the middle - by the ancient Egyptian demotic script, and at the bottom was a translation of the text into ancient Greek.
Cartouches with names were written in an oval.
Hieroglyphic writing is convenient because it is possible to convey both visual and abstract content through its signs; here the question of the alphabet already arises, since to read and write, you need to know and have at your disposal a known set of signs and a very large number of hieroglyphs for a given text and a very large number of hieroglyphs.
And demography is a letter in which graphic signs convey not words in their grammatical and phonetic design, but the meanings behind these words. Therefore, for example, in Chinese hieroglyphic writing, homonyms are transmitted by different hieroglyphs, but they sound and are morphologically constructed in the same way and write my essay for me.
The form of reading in ancient Egyptian is boustrophedon (from left to right, then the next line - from right to left. "Snake")
It is believed that cursive writing influenced the emergence of writing in the Sinai Peninsula (consonant writing is associated with sound.)
Devanagari (type of ancient Indian writing. Sanskrit language) - literary writing. The most commonly used vowel is "a". The alphabet contains "consonant + a". To read another vowel, one or another superscript or subscript was used; if it was required to convey one consonant, then a special subscript "prohibitive" sign of viram was put.
For cases of accumulation of consonants in one syllable, ligatures were used1, for example, for combinations of tra, kta, etc. To read a consonant without a vowel "a", they put the sign of viram.
In the syllabic writing system, graphic signs are not letters, but syllabus e mami1
The syllabic alphabet should correspond to the number of syllables with a given vowel, which, as a rule, does not exceed several tens. The result is a relatively simple alphabet, the use of which does not require special logical and grammatical knowledge.
Phoenician alphabet (consonant) - vowels of the Greek language were made from extra consonants. For special aspirated Greek consonants, special letters were invented: υ - "theta", φ - "phi", x - "chi"
Paleography - the study and establishment of the time of the creation of pis. monuments, inscriptions.
Icons in different periods were written in different ways (size, slope), so it was possible to establish where and when the inscriptions were made.
Sound-alphabetic writing. Does not fully reflect pronunciation. In some languages, the pronunciation is close (German, Russian), and in some - distant (English, French)
Since the 13th century, many French words have entered English.
There have been numerous attempts to reform the English alphabet and spelling. For example, Bernard Shaw left a legacy to change the English. spelling and essay writer.
In English. there is an asymmetric dualism of the linguistic sign. (One letter can transmit many characters, and vice versa). For example, the letter "a" has 12 sounds in English. language, "e" - 10, "i" -9.
Phonography - writing began to convey the language not only in its grammatical structure but also in its phonetic guise.
Even the Egyptians and Assyro-Babylonians made attempts to convey the phonetic side of the language in writing.
The Assyria-Babylonians began to decompose their complex words into "pieces" consonant with the short words of the Sumerian language (from where the Assyro-Babylonians got their writing), that is, in the end - into syllables. Then the hieroglyph began to denote a syllable.
To explain such a decomposition of the word, the following example can be given: if we decomposed the Russian name Shura into shu and ra and transferred these pieces following their French meaning shy (chou) - "cabbage" and ra (rat) - "rat", then we would represent this name with the hieroglyphs "cabbage" and "rat".